This article highlights a cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 2501 adults greater than or equal to 50 years of age, with oversampling of blacks and Hispanics.
The burden of peripheral artery disease is shifting rapidly from high-income to low-income and middle-income countries. This article examines the epidemiology of PAD and, where feasible, takes a global perspective.
Lower extremity atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease has a very high prevalence in most nations and in the United States. Lower extremity PAD is now known to be associated with equal morbidity and mortality and comparable (or higher) health economic costs as coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke. Yet where surveyed, the public and clinicians (as well as health payers and government agencies) do not yet fully recognize the risks associated with PAD.
Lower extremity peripheral artery disease is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity, following coronary artery disease and stroke.This study provides the first comparison of the prevalence of peripheral artery disease between high - income countries (HIC) and low - income or middle - income countries (LMIC), establishes the primary risk factors for peripheral artery disease in these settings, and estimates the number of people living with peripheral artery disease regionally and globally.
This article describes peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in African Americans, and compare findings in African Americans and whites with PAD.
This brief video gives an overview of both Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), the causes of these diseases, and their prevalence.
Cardiovascular Disease is the leading cause of death globally. This video explains the causes of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), and discusses prevalence data from around the globe.
This resource identifies the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease and distinguishes them from other diseases that can mimic PAD, diagnose PAD using the history, findings on physical examination, and ankle brachial index, and formulate an integrated treatment program to improve the symptoms and quality of life and decrease the high cardiovascular event rate.
The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a well-accepted tool to assess severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Categorization of ABI values to match clinical PAD severity (claudication, rest pain, and tissue loss) is based on limited data of a few hundred patients from 1970 and 1996. The American Heart Association guidelines recommended to change reporting of ABIs for cardiovascular risk stratification to normal, abnormal, borderline, and noncompressible. As such, reporting categories for ABI in PAD need re-evaluation.
Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most prevalent, morbid, and mortal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality rates of patients with atherosclerotic PAD stratified according to age and diabetes and to determine predictors of death.
This resource discusses the background and progression of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and their association with arterial thrombosis.
This review describes the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the main morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque rupture, discusses the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation, and considers the current scientific challenges and future research directions
This article reviews recommendations on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor) in patients with coronary artery disease.
Guidelines summarize and evaluate available evidence with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient with a given condition. Guidelines and their recommendations should facilitate decision making of health professionals in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate.
These guidelines should be applied to patients with stable known or suspected coronary artery disease (SCAD).
Review facts about the prevalence rate of PAD among the African American population.
This article analyzes two potential pathways for racial disparities: primary amputation, defined as a major amputation performed without any prior attempt at revascularization, and repeat amputation, defined as a major amputation subsequent to a previous through - foot or major amputation.
This report, which uses 2007 - 2011 Medicare data, looks at the scope of diabetes and peripheral arterial disease in the U.S., with a focus on geographic variations in both preventative services and interventional, while recognizing the ultimate goal of avoiding amputation and preserving the ability to walk for patients.
Little is known regarding the contemporary outcomes of older patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing major lower extremity (LE) amputation in the United States.We sought to characterize clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes after LE amputation in patients with PAD.
The optimal antiplatelet regimen after in‑coronary intervention among patients presenting with complex coronary artery lesions or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has remained unclear. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of triple antiplatelet treatment (TAPT) (cilostazol added to aspirin plus clopidogrel) in these patients.
Contemporary data on clinical outcomes after utilization of atherectomy in lower extremity endovascular revascularization are sparse. The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient sample database from the year 2012.
Trends in the risk of amputation remain unexplored in recent years. The resource examines trends in lower extremity amputation rates, diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures, and the use of preventive measures aimed at limiting the use of amputation procedures in the United States between 1996 and 2011.
African Americans are more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to suffer from PAD. Review the management of PAD in African Americans.
It remains uncertain whether patients with atrial fibrillation requiring longterm oral anticoagulation and with stable coronary artery disease should receive antiplatelet therapy in addition to oral anticoagulation.
The benefit of aspirin among patients with stable atherosclerosis without a prior ischemic event is not well defined. Aspirin is of benefit in outpatients with atherosclerosis with prior ischemic events, but not in those without ischemic events.
Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus low-dose aspirin has not been studied in a broad population of patients at high risk for atherothrombotic events.
Read about the effects of antiplatelet therapy among patients at high risk of occlusive vascular events.
Peripheral vascular interventions have been traditionally performed in the inpatient setting. However, there has been a recent shift away from hospital-based vascular interventions toward outpatient-based procedures. Data are scarce on the efficacy and safety of such procedures being performed in the outpatient setting. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of peripheral vascular interventions performed in a private, outpatient catheterization laboratory.
Many believe that variation in vascular practice may affect limb salvage rates in patients with severe peripheral arterial disease. However, the extent of variation in procedural vascular care obtained by patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains unknown.
This Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care series reports on unwarranted regional variation in the care of several conditions for which surgery is one important treatment option.
Peripheral artery disease is considered to be a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis with associated adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Data from previous trials have suggested that patients receiving clopidogrel monotherapy had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those receiving aspirin. We wanted to compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor, a potent antiplatelet agent, in patients with peripheral artery disease.
We carried out a meta-analysis summarizing the efficacy and safety of direct factor Xa inhibitor (DXI) in patients receiving guideline-based antiplatelet therapy (GBAT) after an acute coronary syndrome.
During the past 15 years, the number of major dysvascular amputations (defined as amputations above the ankle) performed annually has decreased. However, major amputation (MA) continues to be a primary therapy and is frequently the only treatment offered for critical limb ischemia.
Aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance are terms used to describe a reduction in the medication's efficacy in inhibiting platelet aggregation despite regular dosing. This review gives context to the clinical role and implications of antiplatelet resistance in peripheral arterial disease.
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